fbpx
 

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common, chronic disorder that affects the digestive system. This syndrome is also known as spastic colitis or irritable colon. IBS affects mainly the large intestine.

 

Diagnosis of Real Causes & Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

  • Gradual restoration of cellular function
  • Personalized therapeutic protocols, without chemical residues and excipients
  • Treating the real causes
  • Therapeutic formulas that work alone or in combination with any other medication
  • Adopting a Molecular / Therapeutic Nutrition Plan

 

Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

The main symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome include abdominal cramping or pain, bloating, diarrhea or constipation and increased gas. However, IBS can also cause fatigue, nausea, dehydration, bad breath, mucus in the stool, backache and/or incontinence.

 

Symptoms such as the above-mentioned, can often get worse after meals. IBS manifestations may last for several days and then improve or even disappear completely.

 

Irri

IBS can manifest with three main forms. With either predominantly diarrhea (IBS-D), constipation (IBS-C) or both (IBS-M). There is also another subtype of IBS that can appear after an infection or a stressful period (IBS-PI).

 

Epidemiology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

IBS is more common among women (1.5 and up to 3 fold higher than in men) and usually manifests before the age of 50. People with a positive family history for IBS or mental problems such as anxiety and depression are more likely to be affected by the syndrome. It is estimated that IBS affects 11% of the population. While older studies supported that IBS is associated with a low socio-economic status, recent evidence suggest that the opposite is true and that growing up as a child in a more privileged environment is linked to a higher prevalence of IBS. These recent findings support the notion that IBS is a disease closely linked to industrialization and urbanization and justify the emergence of IBS in areas of Africa, Latin America and Asia.

The link between Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Nutrition

Irritable Bowel Syndrome has a clear nutritional etiology along with all other causes. It has been widely evidenced that IBS is more common in people following a Western diet than in people following a high-fiber, low-fat diet. While patients benefit from a combination of medical, nutritional and behavioral approaches, a nutritional shift is in most cases detrimental.

 

Scientific studies have shown that a combination of increased soluble fiber and controlled insoluble fiber can greatly ameliorate the symptoms of IBS.

 

Avoiding dairy products is another common practice, as lactose contained in dairy products is not tolerated well by many people. Actually, the majority of people around the globe are lactose intolerant and this observation agrees with a hypothesis long proposed, claiming that mammals are normally lactose intolerant.

 

Gluten and wheat intolerance is also a common finding in people reporting IBS. Celiac disease is actually more common among people with IBS compared to the general population. However, it needs to be emphasized that a gluten-free diet on a person without celiac disease, does not necessarily reduce symptoms of IBS.

 

Peppermint beverages or peppermint oil have been known to improve symptoms of IBS mainly through blocking local calcium-channels leading to a relaxation of smooth intestinal muscles. Peppermint oil has been shown also to possess antimicrobial activity and can act beneficially against small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).

 

Pathophysiology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Traditionally IBS has been considered as an umbrella term for disorders without a known structural or biochemical origin. New findings and scientific studies however, propose a number of underlying mechanisms and pathways that are implicated in IBS.

 

A well documented theory proposes that IBS begins in the gut. People with a genetic predisposition, or with a susceptible gut microbiome can be severely affected by infection or other environmental factors that can alter the microbiome even more and subsequently promote increased intestinal permeability. This gradual inflammation can lead to a loss of immune homeostasis. Furthermore, these changes in the microbiome can induce a gut visceral hypersensitivity ultimately leading to gastrointestinal symptoms (pain, cramping, bloating) or other more general symptoms (fatigue, anxiety).

 

Other proposed mechanisms implicate the metabolism of bile acid, the establishment of methanogenic bacteria after an infection and abnormalities in the pathway of stress. At this point, we need to emphasize that various factors can be implicated in the pathogenesis of IBS and patients may be affected by more than one pathways.

 

The conventional therapeutic approach to Irritable Bowel Syndrome

The conventional treatment of IBS is aimed mainly on symptom relief. As the symptoms among people can vary considerably, different nutritional approaches are also used.

 

Medications such as antispasmodics (reduce abdominal pain and cramping), bulk-forming laxatives (relieve constipation), antimotility drugs (reduce diarrhea), tricyclic antidepressants (reduce abdominal pain and cramping) are employed in order to help with IBS symptoms.

 

In certain cases, patients ask for psychological help in order to battle more efficiently flare-ups of IBS and the impact of the symptoms.

 

The modern medical approach to Irritable Bowel Syndrome

The first step towards treating Irritable Bowel Syndrome is for the patient to fill in an extensive medical history questionnaire which assesses numerous factors that may be implicated in IBS. Then your Health Specialist will address a series of targeted questions to you and take into consideration any previous medical records, to assess whether your symptoms could be indicative of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Then your specialist may recommend a specialized blood or stool test or other molecular-level diagnostic tests to confirm the diagnosis.

 

Your personalized treatment plan will be based upon the diagnostic tests results, the symptoms described and your medical history overall.

 

This treatment plan will be accompanied by a Molecular Nutrition program that will be compiled after a distinct consultation with our Molecular Nutritionist and will aim therapeutically towards achieving even higher levels of health and well-being along with alleviating not only the symptoms but the true causes of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

 

 

Dr. Nikoleta Koini, M.D.

Doctor of Functional, Preventive, Anti-ageing and Restorative Medicine.
Diplomate and Board Certified in Anti-aging, Preventive, Functional and Regenerative Medicine from A4M (American Academy in Antiaging Medicine).

Functional Corporation
Partners

References


  • Schneider MR, Schmidt-Ullrich R, Paus R (2009) The hair follicle as a dynamic miniorgan. Curr Biol 19: R132-R142.
  • Almohanna HM, Ahmed AA, Tsatalis JP, Tosti A (2019) The Role of Vitamins and Minerals in Hair Loss: A Review. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 9: 51-70.
  • Guo EL, Katta R (2017) Diet and hair loss: Effects of nutrient deficiency and supplement use. Dermatol Pract Concept 7: 1-10.
  • Finner AM (2013) Nutrition and hair: Deficiencies and supplements. Dermatol Clin 31: 167-172.
  • Singh RK, Chang HW, Yan D, Lee KM, Ucmak D, et al. (2017) Influence of diet on the gut microbiome and implications for human health. J Transl Med 15: 73.
  • Scott KP, Gratz SW, Sheridan PO, Flint HJ, Duncan SH (2013) The influence of diet on the gut microbiota. Pharmacol Res 69: 52-60.
  • Vaughn AR, Notay M, Clark AK, Sivamani RK (2017) Skin-gut axis: The relationship between intestinal bacteria and skin health. World J Dermatol 6: 52-58.
  • Bowe WP, Joshi SS, Shalita AR (2010) Diet and acne. J Am Acad Dermatol 63: 124-141.
  • Dawber R (1989) Alopecia areata. Monogr Dermatol 2: 89-102.
  • Odom RB, Davidsohn IJ, William D, Henry JB, Berger TG (2006) Clinical diagnosis by laboratory methods. In: Elston Dirk M, Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier.
  • Brenner W, Diem E, Gschnait F (1979) Coincidence of vitiligo, alopecia areata, onychodystrophy, localized scleroderma and lichen planus. Dermatologica 159: 356-360.
  • Trink A, Sorbellini E, Bezzola P, Rodella L, Rezzani R, et al. (2013) A randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled, half-head study to evaluate the effects of platelet-rich plasma on alopecia areata. Br J Dermatol 169: 690-694.
  • Clavaud C, Jourdain R, Bar-Hen A, Magali Tichit, Christiane Bouchier, et al. (2013) Dandruff is associated with disequilibrium in the proportion of the major bacterial and fungal populations colonizing the scalp. PLoS One 8: e58203.
  • Rinaldi F, Pinto D, Marzani B, Rucco M, Giuliani G, et al. (2018) Human microbiome: What’s new in scalp diseases. J Transl Sci 4: 1-4.
  • Pinto D, Sorbellini E, Marzani B, Rucco M, Giuliani G, et al. (2019) Scalp bacterial shift in Alopecia areata. PLoS One 14: e0215206.
  • Ho BS, Ho EXP, Chu CW, Ramasamy S, Bigliardi-Qi M, et al. (2019) Microbiome in the hair follicle of androgenetic alopecia patients. PLoS One 14: e0216330.
  • Polak-Witka K, Rudnicka L, Blume-Peytavi U, Vogt A (2019) The role of the microbiome in scalp hair follicle biology and disease. Exp Dermatol.
  • L Nair, Z Dai, AM Christiano (2017) 649 Gut microbiota plays a role in the development of alopecia areata. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 137: S112.
  • Olsen EA, Hordinsky MK, Price VH, Roberts JL, Shapiro J, et al. (2004) Alopecia areata investigational assessment guidelines–Part II. National Alopecia Areata Foundation. J Am Acad Dermatol 51: 440-447.
  • Grice EA, Kong HH, Conlan S, Deming CB, Davis J, et al. (2010) Topographical and temporal diversity of the human skin microbiome. Science 324: 1190-1192.
  • Paulino LC, Tseng CH, Strober BE, Blaser MJ (2006) Molecular analysis of fungal microbiota in samples from healthy human skin and psoriatic lesions. J Clin Microbiol 44: 2933-2941.
  • Gao Z, Perez-Perez GI, Chen Y, Blaser MJ (2010) Quantitation of major human cutaneous bacterial and fungal populations. J Clin Microbiol 48: 3575-3581.
  • Klindworth A, Pruesse E, Schweer T, Jörg Peplies, Christian Quast, et al. (2013) Evaluation of general 16S ribosomal RNA gene PCR primers for classical and next-generation sequencing-based diversity studies. Nucleic Acids Res 41: e1.
  • Takahashi S, Tomita J, Nishioka K, Hisada T, Nishijima M (2014) Development of a prokaryotic universal primer for simultaneous analysis of bacteria and archaea using next-generation sequencing. PLoS One 9: e105592.
  • Apprill A, McNally S, Parsons R, Weber L (2015) Minor revision to V4 region SSU rRNA 806R gene primer greatly increases detection of SAR11 bacterioplankton. Aquat Microb Ecol 75: 129-137.
  • Parada AE, Needham DM, Fuhrman JA (2016) Every base matters: assessing small subunit rRNA primers for marine microbiomes with mock communities, time series and global field samples. Environ Microbiol 18: 1403-1414.
  • Walters W, Hyde ER, Berg-Lyons D, Ackermann G, Humphrey G, et al. (2015) Improved bacterial 16S rRNA Gene (V4 and V4-5) and fungal internal transcribed spacer marker gene primers for microbial community surveys. mSystems 1.
  • Caporaso JG, Lauber CL, Walters WA, Berg-Lyons D, Lozupone CA, et al. (2011) Global patterns of 16S rRNA diversity at a depth of millions of sequences per sample. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108: 4516-4522.
  • Kozich JJ, Westcott SL, Baxter NT, Highlander SK, Schloss PD (2013) Development of a dual-index sequencing strategy and curation pipeline for analyzing amplicon sequence data on the MiSeq Illumina sequencing platform. Appl Environ Microbiol 79: 5112-5120.
  • Vigetti D, Viola M, Karousou E, Rizzi M , Moretto P, et al. (2008) Hyaluronan-CD44-ERK1/2 regulate human aortic smooth muscle cell motility during aging. J Biol Chem 283: 4448-4458.
  • Castro-Quezada I, Román-Viñas B, Serra-Majem L (2014) The mediterranean diet and nutritional adequacy: A review. Nutrients 6: 231-248.
  • Rushton DH (2002) Nutritional factors and hair loss. Clin Exp Dermatol 27: 396-404.
  • Mubki T, Rudnicka L, Olszewska M, Shapiro J (2014) Evaluation and diagnosis of the hair loss patient: Part I. History and clinical examination. J Am Acad Dermatol 71: 415.
  • Spivak JL, Jackson DL (1997) Pellagra: An analysis of 18 patients and a review of the literature. Johns Hopkins Med J 140: 295-309.
  • Goldberg LJ, Lenzy Y (2010) Nutrition and hair. Clin Dermatol 28: 412-419.
  • Kato I, Vasquez A, Moyerbrailean G, Land S, Djuric Z, et al. (2017) Nutritional correlates of human oral microbiome. J Am Coll Nutr 36: 88-98.
  • Manam S, Tsakok T, Till S, Flohr C (2014) The association between atopic dermatitis and food allergy in adults. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 14: 423-429.
  • Cordain L, Lindeberg S, Hurtado M, Hill K, Eaton SB, et al. (2002) Acne vulgaris: A disease of Western civilization. Arch Dermatol. 138: 1584-1590.
  • Grossi E, Cazzaniga S, Crotti S, Naldi L, Di Landro A, et al. (2016) The constellation of dietary factors in adolescent acne: A semantic connectivity map approach. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 30: 96-100.
  • Zouboulis CC, Jourdan E, Picardo M (2014) Acne is an inflammatory disease and alterations of sebum composition initiate acne lesions. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 28: 527-532.
  • Zákostelská Z, Málková J, Klimešová K, Pavel Rossmann, Michaela Hornová, et al. (2016) Intestinal microbiota promotes psoriasis-like skin inflammation by enhancing Th17 response. PLoS One 11: e0159539.
  • Zhang C, Zhang M, Wang S, Han R, Cao Y, et al. (2010) Interactions between gut microbiota, host genetics and diet relevant to development of metabolic syndromes in mice. ISME J 4: 232-241.
  • Turnbaugh PJ, Bäckhed F, Fulton L, Gordon JI (2008) Diet-induced obesity is linked to marked but reversible alterations in the mouse distal gut microbiome. Cell Host Microbe 3: 213-223.
  • Mu Q, Kirby J, Reilly CM, Luo XM, (2017) Leaky gut as a danger signal for autoimmune diseases. Front Immunol 8: 598.